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Medical & scientific research on hydrogen-rich, Electrolysed Reduced Water (ERW)

Contrary to what you may be told in the dark depths of online forums on the internet, medical and scientific findings on the effects of molecular hydrogen and electrolysed reduced water (ERW) are very common and prominent.

This resource page is intended to be a running archive of all of the findings that are published in PubMed, a free database of more than 36 million citations for biomedical and life sciences literature that is maintained by The United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health.

It is a highly reliable, highly authoritative resource, with the majority of literature being peer-reviewed.

PubMed only indexes journals that meet specific criteria for quality and editorial standards. The selection process is rigorous and ensures that only reputable and trustworthy sources are included in the database.

Overall, PubMed’s comprehensive coverage, strict quality control measures, association with reputable institutions, and user-friendly interface make it a highly authoritative and valuable resource for scientists, researchers, healthcare professionals, and anyone interested in biomedical literature.

IMPORTANT NOTE: You will NOT see studies on Kangen Water because Kangen Water as a product, but you will see studies what Kangen Water is – hydrogen-rich water, or ERW, or structured water.

Scroll down to read through the peer-reviewed articles, or click on any of the headings directly below to skip to a section.

Hydrogen-rich water & oxidative stress

Major conclusions: Hydrogen has biological benefits toward preventive and therapeutic applications; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of small amounts of hydrogen remain elusive.

General significance: Hydrogen is a novel antioxidant with great potential for actual medical applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Mitochondria.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21621588/

Molecular hydrogen (H2) medicine research has flourished since a landmark publication in Nature Medicine that revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of hydrogen gas in a focal stroke model. Emerging evidence has consistently demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a promising therapeutic option for a variety of diseases and the underlying comprehensive mechanisms is beyond pure hydroxyl radicals scavenging. The non-toxicity at high concentrations and rapid cellular diffusion features of molecular hydrogen ensure the feasibility and readiness of its clinical translation to human patients.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28217294/

Abstract: We previously showed that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a novel antioxidant to protect cells against oxidative stress. Subsequently, numerous studies have indicated the potential applications of H2 in therapeutic and preventive medicine. Moreover, H2 regulates various signal transduction pathways and the expression of many genes. However, the primary targets of H2 in the signal transduction pathways are unknown. Here, we attempted to determine how H2 regulates gene expression. In a pure chemical system, H2 gas (approximately 1%, v/v) suppressed the autoxidation of linoleic acid that proceeds by a free radical chain reaction, and pure 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC), one of the major phospholipids, was autoxidized in the presence or absence of H2. H2 modified the chemical production of the autoxidized phospholipid species in the cell-free system. Exposure of cultured cells to the H2-dependently autoxidized phospholipid species reduced Ca(2+) signal transduction and mediated the expression of various genes as revealed by comprehensive microarray analysis. In the cultured cells, H2 suppressed free radical chain reaction-dependent peroxidation and recovered the increased cellular Ca(2+), resulting in the regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression. Thus, H2 might regulate gene expression via the Ca(2+) signal transduction pathway by modifying the free radical-dependent generation of oxidized phospholipid mediators.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26739257/

Conclusions: Hydrogen-enriched water improves mitochondrial dysfunction in MM and inflammatory processes in PM/DM. Less prominent effects with the double-blind trial compared to the open-label trial were likely due to a lower amount of administered hydrogen and a shorter observation period, which implies a threshold effect or a dose-response effect of hydrogen.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22146674/

Abstract: Excessive production of oxygen free radicals has been regarded as a causative common denominator of many pathological processes in the animal kingdom. Hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals represent the major cause of the destruction of biomolecules either by a direct reaction or by triggering a chain reaction of free radicals. Scavenging of free radicals may act preventively or therapeutically. A number of substances that preferentially react with free radicals can serve as scavengers, thus increasing the internal capacity/activity of endogenous antioxidants and protecting cells and tissues against oxidative damage. Molecular hydrogen (H(2 reacts with strong oxidants, such as hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals, in the cells, that enables utilization of its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H(2) rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells without affecting metabolic redox reactions and signaling reactive species. H(2) reduces oxidative stress also by regulating gene expression, and functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. There is a growing body of evidence based on the results of animal experiments and clinical observations that H(2) may represent an effective antioxidant for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Application of molecular hydrogen in situations with excessive production of free radicals, in particular, hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals is relatively simple and effective, therefore, it deserves special attention.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27643933/

Abstract: Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9169001/

Abstract: Acute oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion or inflammation causes serious damage to tissues, and persistent oxidative stress is accepted as one of the causes of many common diseases including cancer. We show here that hydrogen (H(2 has potential as an antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications. We induced acute oxidative stress in cultured cells by three independent methods. H(2) selectively reduced the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and effectively protected cells; however, H(2) did not react with other ROS, which possess physiological roles. We used an acute rat model in which oxidative stress damage was induced in the brain by focal ischemia and reperfusion. The inhalation of H(2) gas markedly suppressed brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Thus H(2) can be used as an effective antioxidant therapy; owing to its ability to rapidly diffuse across membranes, it can reach and react with cytotoxic ROS and thus protect against oxidative damage.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17486089/

Abstract: Hydrogen, the simplest gas in nature, was recently reported as a therapeutic antioxidant through selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Though hundreds of studies on curative effects of hydrogen were published and justified, the mechanism remains unclear. We proposed several promising directions in this area by relatively in-depth analysis. Firstly, the physiological function of hydrogen was regarded neutralizing free radicals at a low dose; however, physiological effects of an excessive dose of hydrogen were necessary for the comprehensive understanding. Secondly, the therapeutic effects and mechanisms were explained by anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and apoptosis ways, while the limitation was obvious and needed update. Thirdly, further studies might be focused on the possible networks including effecters and receptors of hydrogen, and the evolutionary perspective was a good point of view. In conclusion, this review might be a reference and guidance for relative scholars.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25485090/


Since the 2007 discovery that molecular hydrogen (H2) has selective antioxidant properties, multiple studies have shown that H2 has beneficial effects in diverse animal models and human disease. This review discusses H2 biological effects and potential mechanisms of action in various diseases, including metabolic syndrome, organ injury, and cancer; describes effective H2 delivery approaches; and summarizes recent progress toward H2 applications in human medicine. We also discuss remaining questions in H2 therapy, and conclude with an appeal for a greater role for H2 in the prevention and treatment of human ailments that are currently major global health burdens. This review makes a case for supporting hydrogen medicine in human disease prevention and therapy.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29254278/


Molecular hydrogen (H2) was believed to be inert and nonfunctional in mammalian cells. We overturned this concept by demonstrating that H2 reacts with highly reactive oxidants such as hydroxyl radical •)OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(- inside cells. H2 has several advantages exhibiting marked effects for medical applications: it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect signaling by reactive oxygen species. Therefore, it should have no or little adverse effects. H2 can be monitored with an H2-specific electrode or by gas chromatography. H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells to exhibit efficient effects. Thus, we proposed the potential of H2 for preventive and therapeutic applications. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2: inhaling H2 gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (H2-water), injecting H2-dissolved saline (H2-saline), taking an H2 bath, or dropping H2-saline onto the eyes. Recent publications revealed that, in addition to the direct neutralization of highly reactive oxidants, H2 indirectly reduces oxidative stress by regulating the expression of various genes. Moreover, by regulating gene expression, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antiapoptotic molecule, and stimulates energy metabolism. In addition to growing evidence obtained by model animal experiments, extensive clinical examinations were performed or are under way. Since most drugs specifically act on their specific targets, H2 seems to differ from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Owing to its great efficacy and lack of adverse effects, H2 has potential for clinical applications for many diseases.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25747486/


It has been reported that hydrogen gas exerts a therapeutic effect in a wide range of disease conditions, from acute illness such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, shock, and damage healing to chronic illness such as metabolic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of hydrogen gas have been proposed, but the molecular target of hydrogen gas has not been identified. We established the Center for Molecular Hydrogen Medicine to promote non-clinical and clinical research on the medical use of hydrogen gas through industry-university collaboration and to obtain regulatory approval of hydrogen gas and hydrogen medical devices (http://www.karc.keio.ac.jp/center/center-55.html). Studies undertaken by the Center have suggested possible therapeutic effects of hydrogen gas in relation to various aspects of emergency and critical care medicine, including acute myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary arrest syndrome, contrast-induced acute kidney injury, and hemorrhagic shock.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29657720/


More than 400 original articles have been published from 2007 onwards evaluating therapeutic potential of molecular hydrogen (H2), the youngest member of medical gases family with selective anti-oxidative properties. However, recent studies suggest that H2 may tackle other mitochondrial processes besides oxidative stress, including metabolic pathways that drive cellular energy.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28435468/


In recent years, it has become evident that molecular hydrogen is a particularyl effective treatment for various disease models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury; as a result, research on hydrogen has progressed rapidly. Hydrogen has been shown to be effective not only through intake as a gas, but also as a liquid medication taken orally, intravenously, or locally. Hydrogen’s effectiveness is thus multifaceted. Herein we review the recent research on hydrogen-rich water, and we examine the possibilities for its clinical application. Now that hydrogen is in the limelight as a gaseous signaling molecule due to its potential ability to inhibit oxidative stress signaling, new research developments are highly anticipated.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27777424/


Molecular hydrogen (H2) appeared as an experimental agent in biomedicine approximately 40 years ago, yet the past 5 years seem to confirm its medicinal value in the clinical environment. H2 improves clinical end-points and surrogate markers in several clinical trials, from metabolic diseases to chronic systemic inflammatory disorders to cancer. However, less information is available concerning its medicinal properties, such as dosage and administration, or adverse reactions and use in specific populations. The present paper overviews the clinical relevance of molecular hydrogen, and summarizes data from clinical trials on this innovative medical agent. Clinical profiles of H2 provide evidence-based direction for practical application and future research on molecular hydrogen for the wider health care community.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25936365/


Effects of molecular hydrogen on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Most studies have been performed on rodents including two models of Parkinson’s disease and three models of Alzheimer’s disease. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson’s disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine. Six human diseases have been studied to date: diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, hemodialysis, inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies, brain stem infarction, and radiation-induced adverse effects. Two enigmas, however, remain to be solved. First, no dose-response effect is observed. Rodents and humans are able to take a small amount of hydrogen by drinking hydrogen-rich water, but marked effects are observed. Second, intestinal bacteria in humans and rodents produce a large amount of hydrogen, but an addition of a small amount of hydrogen exhibits marked effects. Further studies are required to elucidate molecular bases of prominent hydrogen effects and to determine the optimal frequency, amount, and method of hydrogen administration for each human disease.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22720117/


In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline. This study reviews recent studies on the protectiveness of hydrogen and discusses the possible mechanisms including antioxidant ability as a gaseous signaling molecule, anti-cancer capability and others. It also tries to reveal whether endogenous hydrogen has an important role in the protective system. Nevertheless, there are still many remaining questions in the domain of hydrogen medicine and much work needs to be carried out in the future.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22328284/


Recent basic and clinical research has revealed that hydrogen is an important physiological regulatory factor with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protective effects on cells and organs. Therapeutic hydrogen has been applied by different delivery methods including straightforward inhalation, drinking hydrogen dissolved in water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline. This review summarizes currently available data regarding the protective role of hydrogen, provides an outline of recent advances in research on the use of hydrogen as a therapeutic medical gas in diverse models of disease and discusses the feasibility of hydrogen as a therapeutic strategy. It is not an overstatement to say that hydrogen’s impact on therapeutic and preventive medicine could be enormous in the future.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20815764/


Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases; however, currently used antioxidants have a high toxicity that constrains administration to a narrow window of therapeutic dosage. There is a clear need for more effective and safer antioxidants. Diatomic hydrogen (H(2 was proposed as a novel antioxidant that selectively reduces levels of toxic reactive-oxygen species. Recently, many studies have reported that H(2) (inhaled or orally ingested, typically as approximately 0.8 mM H(2)-saturated water), can exert beneficial effects in diverse animal models of ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and inflammatory and neurological disease. In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects. This review summarizes recent research findings and mechanisms concerning the therapeutic potential of H(2).

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21226992/


Cardinal and colleagues describe the use of molecular hydrogen, the most abundant molecule in the universe, as a treatment for chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) in a rat model of kidney transplantation. They demonstrate that the addition of hydrogen to the drinking water results in a decrease in the severity of CAN and increased graft survival, and they provide evidence that the mechanism of action could be due to a reduction in reactive oxygen species.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20040921/


Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19177183/


Molecular hydrogen (H2) is clinically administered; however, in some hospitals, H2 is given to patients without consideration of its safe use. In the present study, we prepared convenient and safe devices for the drinking of super-saturated H2 water, for intravenous drip infusion of H2-rich saline, and for the inhalation of H2 gas. In order to provide useful information for researchers using these devices, the changes in H2 concentration were studied. Our experimental results should contribute to the advance of non-clinical and clinical research in H2 medicine.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26504515/

Hydrogen-rich water & lactic acid

Conclusion: Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22520831/

Hydrogen-rich water & Alzheimer’s disease

Abstract: Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are identified in cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous evidence suggests Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is linked to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The accumulation of Aβ-induced ROS leads to increased mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptotic cell death. This suggests antioxidant therapies may be beneficial for preventing ROS-related diseases such as AD. Recently, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been proven effective in treating oxidative stress-induced disorders because of its ROS-scavenging abilities. However, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby HRW prevents neuronal death are still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the putative pathways by which HRW protects against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that HRW directly counteracts oxidative damage by neutralizing excessive ROS, leading to the alleviation of Aβ-induced cell death. In addition, HRW also stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent pathway, which upregulates forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a) downstream antioxidant response and diminishes Aβ-induced mitochondrial potential loss and oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that HRW may have potential therapeutic value to inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26271894/

Hydrogen-rich water & cataract

Abstract: Cataract is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is an important risk factor contributing to the development of cataract. Moreover, the enhancement of the antioxidant defense system may be beneficial to prevent or delay the cataractogenesis. The term oxidative stress has been defined as a disturbance in the equilibrium status of oxidant/antioxidant systems with progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intact cells. Superfluous ROS can damage proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids within ocular tissues that are closely correlated with cataract formation. Therefore, prevention of oxidative stress damage by antioxidants might be considered as a viable means of medically offsetting the progression of this vision-impairing disease. Molecular hydrogen has recently been verified to have protective and therapeutic value as an antioxidant through its ability to selectively reduce cytotoxic ROS such as hydroxyl radical (OH). Hitherto, hydrogen has been used as a therapeutic element against multiple pathologies in both animal models and human patients. Unlike most well-known antioxidants, which are unable to successfully target organelles, hydrogen has advantageous distribution characteristics enabling it to penetrate biomembranes and diffuse into the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. Consequently, we speculate that hydrogen might be an effective antioxidant to protect against lens damage, and it is important to further explore the biological mechanism underlying its potential therapeutic effects.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27606690/

Hydrogen-rich water & cellular redox state

Abstract: It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H₂O₂-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H₂O₂ on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27598129/

Hydrogen-rich water & metabolic syndrome (obesity)

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by cardiometabolic risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Oxidative stress is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of hydrogen rich water (1.5-2 L/day) in an open label, 8-week study on 20 subjects with potential metabolic syndrome. Hydrogen rich water was produced, by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (hydrogen concentration; 0.55-0.65 mM), by the following chemical reaction; Mg + 2H(2)O –> Mg (OH)(2) + H(2). The consumption of hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase (p<0.05) in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease (p<0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Further, subjects demonstrated an 8% increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol from baseline to week 4. There was no change in fasting glucose levels during the 8 week study. In conclusion, drinking hydrogen rich water represents a potentially novel therapeutic and preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome. The portable magnesium stick was a safe, easy and effective method of delivering hydrogen rich water for daily consumption by participants in the study.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20216947/

Hydrogen-rich water & radiotherapy

Background: Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy often experience fatigue and impaired quality of life (QOL). Many side effects of radiotherapy are believed to be associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxygen species during radiotherapy. Hydrogen can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas, has antioxidant properties, and reduces inflammation in tissues. This study examined whether hydrogen treatment, in the form of hydrogen-supplemented water, improved QOL in patients receiving radiotherapy.

Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on 49 patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. Hydrogen-rich water was produced by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (final hydrogen concentration; 0.55~0.65 mM). The Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer’s QLQ-C30 instrument was used to evaluate global health status and QOL. The concentration of derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites and biological antioxidant power in the peripheral blood were assessed.

Results: The consumption of hydrogen-rich water for 6 weeks reduced reactive oxygen metabolites in the blood and maintained blood oxidation potential. QOL scores during radiotherapy were significantly improved in patients treated with hydrogen-rich water compared to patients receiving placebo water. There was no difference in tumor response to radiotherapy between the two groups.

Conclusions: Daily consumption of hydrogen-rich water is a potentially novel, therapeutic strategy for improving QOL after radiation exposure. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22146004/


It is well known that most of the ionizing radiation-induced damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) follows radiolysis of H2O. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has antioxidant activities by selectively reducing ·OH and peroxynitrite(ONOO-). We firstly hypothesized and demonstrated the radioprotective effect of H2 in vitro and in vivo, which was also repeated on different experimental animal models by different departments. A randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects. These encouraging results suggested that H2 represents a potentially novel preventative strategy for radiation-induced oxidative injuries. H2 is explosive. Therefore, administration of hydrogen-rich solution (physiological saline/pure water/other solutions saturated with H2) may be more practical in daily life and more suitable for daily consumption. This review focuses on major scientific and clinical advances of hydrogen-rich solution/H2 as a new class of radioprotective agent.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24155664/


Molecular hydrogen (dihydrogen, H(2 acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-). It has been well-known that ionising radiation (IR) causes oxidative damage and consequent apoptosis mainly due to the production of •OH that follows radiolysis of H(2)O. Our department reported the protective effect of H(2) in irradiated cells and mice for the first time, and this effect is well repeated by us and another laboratory in different experimental animal models. A randomised, placebo-controlled investigation also showed consumption of H(2) can improve the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumours. These encouraging results suggested that H(2) has a potential as a radioprotective agent with efficacy and non-toxicity.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22537465/


Most ionizing radiation-induced damage is caused by radical oxygen species (ROS). Some radioprotectors, such as amifostine, exert radioprotective effects by scavenging radical oxygen species. Recent studies show that hydrogen (H) has antioxidant activities that protect the brain and intestine against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and stroke by selectively reducing hydroxyl and peroxynitrite radicals. However it is seldom regarded as a radioprotective agent. In like manner we hypothesize that hydrogen may be an effective, specific and novel radioprotective agent. But H2 is explosive, while hydrogen-rich solution (solution such as physiological saline saturated with molecular hydrogen) is safer.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21275114/

Hydrogen-rich water & autism


Autism is neuro-developmental disorder. Oxidative stress is enhanced in some children with autism. Hydrogen is a gas with anti-oxidative effects suggested for treating or prevention of some medical problems. It is hypothesized that lactulose or hydrogen water may provide hydrogen to reduce oxidative stress in autism.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22846252/

Hydrogen-rich water & sports medicine


In the past 2 decades, molecular hydrogen emerged as a novel therapeutic agent, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects demonstrated in plethora of animal disease models and human studies. Beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in clinical environment are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, brain stem infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, or neurodegenerative diseases. A number of more recent studies have reported that molecular hydrogen affects cell signal transduction and acts as an alkalizing agent, with these newly identified mechanisms of action having the potential to widen its application in clinical medicine even further. In particular, hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific innovative treatment for exercise-induced oxidative stress and sports injury, with potential for the improvement of exercise performance. This review will summarize recent research findings regarding the clinical aspects of molecular hydrogen use, emphasizing its application in the field of sports medicine.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25525953/

Hydrogen-rich water & cardiovascular and metabolic diseases


Hydrogen (H2) is colorless, odorless, and the lightest of gas molecules. Studies in the past ten years have indicated that H2 is extremely important in regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system and metabolic activity. Delivery of H2 by various strategies improves cardiometabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis, vascular injury, ischemic or hypertrophic ventricular remodeling, intermittent hypoxia- or heart transplantation-induced heart injury, obesity and diabetes in animal models or in clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physical and chemical properties of H2, and then, the functions of H2 with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanisms involved in the diseases above. We hope this review will provide the future outlook of H2-based therapies for cardiometabolic disease.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29763888/

Hydrogen-rich water & cellular senescence in endothelial cells

Background: Substantial evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen (H2) has beneficial vascular effects because of its antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, hydrogen-rich water may prove to be an effective anti-aging drink. This study examined the effects of H2on endothelial senescence and clarified the mechanisms involved.

Methods and results: Hydrogen-rich medium was produced by a high-purity hydrogen gas generator. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for various time periods in normal or hydrogen-rich medium. The baseline H2concentration in hydrogen-rich medium was 0.55±0.07 mmol/L. This concentration gradually decreased, and H2was almost undetectable in medium after 12 h. At 24 h after TCDD exposure, HUVECs treated with TCDD exhibited increased 8OHdG and acetyl-p53 expression, decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+/NADH ratio, impaired Sirt1 activity, and enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase. However, HUVECs incubated in hydrogen-rich medium did not exhibit these TCDD-induced changes accompanying Nrf2 activation, which was observed even after H2was undetectable in the medium. Chrysin, an inhibitor of Nrf2, abolished the protective effects of H2on HUVECs.

Conclusions: H2has long-lasting antioxidant and anti-aging effects on vascular endothelial cells through the Nrf2 pathway, even after transient exposure to H2. Hydrogen-rich water may thus be a functional drink that increases longevity. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2037-2046).

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27477846/

Hydrogen-rich water & leukaemia


Electrolzyed-reduced water (ERW) is a higher pH and lower oxidation-reduction potential water. In the present study, we examined the enhanced effect of ERW in the apoptosis of leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by glutathione (GSH). An enhanced inhibitory effect on the viability of the HL-60 cells was observed after treatment with a combination of ERW with various concentrations of GSH, whereas no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells was observed. The results of apoptotic related protein indicated that the induction of HL-60 cell death was caused by the induction of apoptosis through upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2. The results of further investigation showed a diminution of intracellular GSH levels in ERW, and combination with GSH groups. These results suggest that ERW is an antioxidant, and that ERW, in combination with GSH, has an enhanced apoptosis-inducing effect on HL-60 cells, which might be mediated through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19202298/

Hydrogen-rich water & LDL cholesterol


We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H2) has beneficial lipid-lowering effects in high-fat diet-fed Syrian golden hamsters. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of H2-rich water (0.9-1.0 l/day) on the content, composition, and biological activities of serum lipoproteins on 20 patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Serum analysis showed that consumption of H2-rich water for 10 weeks resulted in decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Western blot analysis revealed a marked decrease of apolipoprotein (apo)B100 and apoE in serum. In addition, we found H2 significantly improved HDL functionality assessed in four independent ways, namely, i) protection against LDL oxidation, ii) inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, iii) stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and iv) protection of endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Further, we found consumption of H2-rich water resulted in an increase in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and a decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in whole serum and LDL. In conclusion, supplementation with H2-rich water seems to decrease serum LDL-C and apoB levels, improve dyslipidemia-injured HDL functions, and reduce oxidative stress, and it may have a beneficial role in prevention of potential metabolic syndrome.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23610159/

Hydrogen-rich water & diabetes


Oxidative stress is recognized widely as being associated with various disorders including diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. It is well established that hydrogen has a reducing action. We therefore investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich water intake on lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with either type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 patients with T2DM controlled by diet and exercise therapy and 6 patients with IGT. The patients consumed either 900 mL/d of hydrogen-rich pure water or 900 mL of placebo pure water for 8 weeks, with a 12-week washout period. Several biomarkers of oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism, assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, were evaluated at baseline and at 8 weeks. Intake of hydrogen-rich water was associated with significant decreases in the levels of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (ie, modifications that increase the net negative charge of LDL), small dense LDL, and urinary 8-isoprostanes by 15.5% (P < .01), 5.7% (P < .05), and 6.6% (P < .05), respectively. Hydrogen-rich water intake was also associated with a trend of decreased serum concentrations of oxidized LDL and free fatty acids, and increased plasma levels of adiponectin and extracellular-superoxide dismutase. In 4 of 6 patients with IGT, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19083400/


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause irreversible damage to biological macromolecules, resulting in many diseases. Reduced water (RW) such as hydrogen-rich electrolyzed reduced water and natural reduced waters like Hita Tenryosui water in Japan and Nordenau water in Germany that are known to improve various diseases, could protect a hamster pancreatic beta cell line, HIT-T15 from alloxan-induced cell damage. Alloxan, a diabetogenic compound, is used to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in animals. Its diabetogenic effect is exerted via the production of ROS. Alloxan-treated HIT-T15 cells exhibited lowered viability, increased intracellular ROS levels, elevated cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration, DNA fragmentation, decreased intracellular ATP levels and lowering of glucose-stimulated release of insulin. RW completely prevented the generation of alloxan-induced ROS, increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, decrease of intracellular ATP level, and lowering of glucose-stimulated insulin release, and strongly blocked DNA fragmentation, partially suppressing the lowering of viability of alloxan-treated cells. Intracellular ATP levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were increased by RW to 2-3.5 times and 2-4 times, respectively, suggesting that RW enhances the glucose-sensitivity and glucose response of beta-cells. The protective activity of RW was stable at 4 degrees C for over a month, but was lost by autoclaving. These results suggest that RW protects pancreatic beta-cells from alloxan-induced cell damage by preventing alloxan-derived ROS generation. RW may be useful in preventing alloxan-induced type 1-diabetes mellitus.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19003114/


Electrolyzed reduced water, which is capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species, is attracting recent attention because it has shown improved efficacy against several types of diseases including diabetes mellitus. Alloxan produces reactive oxygen species and causes type 1 diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by irreversible oxidative damage to insulin-producing β-cells. Here, we showed that electrolyzed reduced water prevented alloxan-induced DNA fragmentation and the production of cells in sub-G1 phase in HIT-T15 pancreatic β-cells. Blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetes model mice were also significantly suppressed by feeding the mice with electrolyzed reduced water. These results suggest that electrolyzed reduced water can prevent apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and the development of symptoms in type 1 diabetes model mice by alleviating the alloxan-derived generation of reactive oxygen species.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21063772/


Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and is likely involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction found in diabetes. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in two different diabetic animal models. The genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse were used as insulin deficient type 1 and insulin resistant type 2 animal model, respectively. ERW, provided as a drinking water, significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and improved glucose tolerance in both animal models. However, ERW fail to affect blood insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice whereas blood insulin level was markedly increased in genetically diabetic db/db mice. This improved blood glucose control could result from enhanced insulin sensitivity, as well as increased insulin release. The present data suggest that ERW may function as an orally effective anti-diabetic agent and merit further studies on its precise mechanism.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16945392/


Oxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db). ERW with ROS scavenging ability reduced the blood glucose concentration, increased blood insulin level, improved glucose tolerance and preserved beta-cell mass in db/db mice. The present data suggest that ERW may protects beta-cell damage and would be useful for antidiabetic agent.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17268057/

Hydrogen-rich water & fibrosarcoma


It has been demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2 is directly associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in several cell lines. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW), produced near the cathode during electrolysis, and scavenges intracellular H(2)O(2) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. RT-PCR and zymography analyses revealed that when HT1080 cells were treated with ERW, the gene expression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1 MMP and activation of MMP-2 was repressed, resulting in decreased invasion of the cells into matrigel. ERW also inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced MMP-2 upregulation. To investigate signal transduction involved in MMP-2 downregulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase kinase 1 inhibitor) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase inhibitor II, were used to block the MAPK signal cascade. MMP-2 gene expression was only inhibited by SB203580 treatment, suggesting a pivotal role of p38 MAPK in regulation of MMP-2 gene expression. Western blot analysis showed that ERW downregulated the phosphorylation of p38 both in H(2)O(2)-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of ERW on tumor invasion is due to, at least in part, its antioxidative effect.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22695858/

Abstract: It has been demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is directly associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in several cell lines. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW), produced near the cathode during electrolysis, and scavenges intracellular H2O2 in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. RT-PCR and zymography analyses revealed that when HT1080 cells were treated with ERW, the gene expression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1 MMP and activation of MMP-2 was repressed, resulting in decreased invasion of the cells into matrigel. ERW also inhibited H2O2-induced MMP-2 upregulation. To investigate signal transduction involved in MMP-2 downregulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase kinase 1 inhibitor) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor II, were used to block the MAPK signal cascade. MMP-2 gene expression was only inhibited by SB203580 treatment, suggesting a pivotal role of p38 MAPK in regulation of MMP-2 gene expression. Western blot analysis showed that ERW downregulated the phosphorylation of p38 both in H2O2-treated and untreated HT1080 cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of ERW on tumor invasion is due to, at least in part, its antioxidative effect.

Link to PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386386/


Hydrogen-rich water & reflux disease

Background: Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose-response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose-response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model.

Methods: In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model.

Results: Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5.

Conclusions: Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose-response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24589018/


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a clinical condition characterized by reflux of gastroduodenal contents in the oesophagus, has proved to demonstrate a strong link between oxidative stress and the development of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been universally accepted as first-line therapy for management of GERD. The potential benefits of electrolysed reduced water (ERW), rich in molecular hydrogen, in improving symptoms and systemic oxidative stress associated with GERD was assessed. The study was performed on 84 GERD patients undergoing control treatment (PPI + tap water) or experimental treatment (PPI + ERW) for 3 months. These patients were subjected to the GERD-Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire as well as derivatives reactive oxigen metabolites (d-ROMs) test, biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde assays, which were all performed as a proxy for the oxidative/nitrosative stress and the antioxidant potential status. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between scores and laboratory parameters. Overall results demonstrated that an optimal oxidative balance can be restored and GERD symptoms can be reduced rapidly via the integration of ERW in GERD patients. The relative variation of heartburn and regurgitation score was significantly correlated with laboratory parameters. Thus, in the selected patients, combination treatment with PPI and ERW improves the cellular redox state leading to the improvement of the quality of life as demonstrated by the correlation analysis between laboratory parameters and GERD symptoms.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29512923/

Objectives: At the cellular level, tissue-bound pepsin is fundamental to the pathophysiologic mechanism of reflux disease, and although the thresholds for laryngeal damage in laryngopharyngeal reflux and for esophageal damage in gastroesophageal reflux disease differ, both forms of damage are due to pepsin, which requires acid for its activation. In addition, human pepsin remains stable at pH 7.4 and may be reactivated by hydrogen ions from any source. Thus, most tap and bottled waters (typically pH 6.7 to 7.4) would not be expected to affect pepsin stability. The purposes of these in vitro studies were to investigate whether artesian well water containing natural bicarbonate (pH 8.8) might irreversibly denature (inactivate) human pepsin, and to establish its potential acid-buffering capacity.

Methods: Laboratory studies were performed to determine whether human pepsin was inactivated by pH 8.8 alkaline water. In addition, the buffering capacity of the alkaline water was measured and compared to that of the two most popular commercially available bottled waters.

Results: The pH 8.8 alkaline water irreversibly inactivated human pepsin (in vitro), and its hydrochloric acid-buffering capacity far exceeded that of the conventional-pH waters.

Conclusions: Unlike conventional drinking water, pH 8.8 alkaline water instantly denatures pepsin, rendering it permanently inactive. In addition, it has good acid-buffering capacity. Thus, the consumption of alkaline water may have therapeutic benefits for patients with reflux disease.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22844861/


Hydrogen-rich water & irritable bowel syndrome

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the ingestion of alkaline-reduced water (ARW) is helpful in improving the symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Methods: Twenty-seven patients (male, 25.9%; mean, 41.7 years old) with diarrhea-predominant IBS were randomly allocated to two groups. For eight weeks, the ARW group (n = 13) ingested at least 2 liters/day of ARW, while the control group (n = 14) ingested placebo water. IBS symptom scores (quality-of-life, abdominal pain/discomfort), stool form, and frequency were assessed before and after treatment via questionnaires.

Results: Eight patients (61.5%) in the ARW group and six patients (42.9%) in the control group indicated that their symptoms had improved in more than four out of the eight weeks of treatment (p = 0.449). The IBS quality-of-life score significantly improved from 57.2 to 30.8 in the ARW group; this improvement was significantly greater than the slight improvement from 48.7 to 42.2 observed in the control group (p = 0.029). The abdominal pain score improved from 1.8 to 0.9 in the ARW group and from 1.8 to 1.1 in the control group, with no significant group difference (p = 0.232).

Conclusions: Drinking ARW for eight weeks improves the quality of life in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29849734/

Hydrogen-rich water & haemodialysis

Background: T-cell damage by increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD) led to the increased T-cell apoptosis and the alteration of surface markers and Th1/Th2 ratio in CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Antioxidant electrolysed-reduced water (ERW) was used as the dialysate in ESRD patients undergoing chronic HD to test for improved oxidative stress-related T-cell apoptosis, alterations of surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile.

Methods: We evaluated apoptosis formation by annexin V, CD25-related surface markers, and cytokine ratio of Th1/Th2 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes and Tc1/Tc2 in CD8(+) T lymphocytes of 42 ESRD patients haemodialysed with ERW for 1 year.

Results: In comparison to 12 healthy individuals, the ESRD patients had more T-cell apoptosis and less CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes at baseline. Lower intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/CD4(+) and Tc1/CD8(+) cells and higher intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/CD4(+) and Tc2/CD8(+) cells were also noted in the ESRD patients. After a 1-year ERW treatment, the patients had a decrease in T-cell apoptosis and increases in CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell numbers and CD25/CD69/CD94/CD3(+) phenotypes in the T cells. The intracellular IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the Th1/Tc1 cells significantly (P < 0.05) increased and the intracellular IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 levels in the Th2/Tc2 cells decreased. Furthermore, the Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine ratios were improved toward a normal status.

Conclusion: One-year ERW treatment effectively ameliorated T-cell apoptosis, altered CD25-related surface markers and intracellular cytokine profile in the HD patients.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20190245/

Background: Increased oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients may oxidize macromolecules and consequently lead to cardiovascular events during chronic hemodialysis. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability may have a potential effect on reduction of hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in ESRD patients.

Methods: We developed a chemiluminescence emission spectrum and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis to assess the effect of ERW replacement on plasma ROS (H2O2 and HOCl) scavenging activity and oxidized lipid or protein production in ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Oxidized markers, dityrosine, methylguanidine, and phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, and inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined.

Results: Although hemodialysis efficiently removes dityrosine and creatinine, hemodialysis increased oxidative stress, including phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, and methylguanidine. Hemodialysis reduced the plasma ROS scavenging activity, as shown by the augmented reference H2O2 and HOCl counts (Rh2o2 and Rhocl, respectively) and decreased antioxidative activity (expressed as total antioxidant status in this study). ERW administration diminished hemodialysis-enhanced Rh2o2 and Rhocl, minimized oxidized and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6), and partly restored total antioxidant status during 1-month treatment.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hemodialysis with ERW administration may efficiently increase the H2O2- and HOCl-dependent antioxidant defense and reduce H2O2- and HOCl-induced oxidative stress.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12846769/


Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival. We explored whether electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia. Forty-three patients undergoing chronic HD were enrolled and received ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the chronic HD patients without treatment (n=15) or with vitamin C (VC)- (n=15), vitamin E (VE)-coated dialyzer (n=15), or ERW treatment (n=15) during an HD course. The patients showed marked increases (15-fold) in blood reactive oxygen species, mostly H(2)O(2), after HD without any treatment. HD resulted in decreased plasma VC, total antioxidant status, and erythrocyte metHb/ferricyanide reductase activity and increased erythrocyte levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and plasma metHb. Antioxidants treatment significantly palliated single HD course-induced oxidative stress, plasma and RBC PCOOH, and plasma metHb levels, and preserved erythrocyte metHb /ferricyanide reductase activity in an order VC>ERW>VE-coated dialyzer. However, ERW had no side effects of oxalate accumulation easily induced by VC. Six-month ERW treatment increased hematocrit and attenuated proinflammatory cytokines profile in the HD patients. In conclusion, ERW treatment administration is effective in palliating HD-evoked oxidative stress, as indicated by lipid peroxidation, hemolysis, and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in HD patients.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16760903/

Background/aims: The application of electrolyzed water (EW) at the cathode side to manufacture reverse osmosis (RO) water and hemodialysis (HD) solution can actually lead to less oxidative capacity in chemical terms. The present study examined the biological actions of this water on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the clinical feasibility of applying this technology to HD treatment.

Methods: RO water using EW (e-RO) exhibited less chemiluminescence in luminol-hydrogen peroxide and higher dissolved hydrogen levels (-99.0 ppb) compared with control RO water. The effects of e-RO on PMN viability were tested. HD using e-RO was performed for 12 consecutive sessions in 8 patients for the feasibility test.

Results: Basal cellular viability and function to generate superoxide radicals of PMNs were better preserved by e-RO application. In the clinical trial, reductions of blood pressure were noted, but no adverse events were observed. There were no changes in the blood dialysis parameters, although methylguanidine levels were significantly decreased at the end of study.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the capacity of e-RO to preserve the viability of PMNs, and the clinical feasibility of applying this water for HD treatment. The clinical application of this technology may improve the bio-compatibility of HD treatment.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19342864/


Background and aim: It is supposed that enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation are involved with the poor clinical outcomes in patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent studies have shown that molecular hydrogen (H2) is biologically active as an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, we developed a novel hemodialysis (E-HD) system which delivers H2 (30 to 80 ppb)-enriched dialysis solution, to conduct a prospective observational study (UMIN000004857) in order to compare the long-term outcomes between E-HD and conventional-HD (C-HD) in Japan. The present interim analysis aimed to look at potential clinical effects of E-HD during the first 12 months observation.

Subjects and method: 262 patients (140, E-HD; 122, C-HD) were subjected for analysis for comprehensive clinical profiles. They were all participating in the above mentioned study, and they had been under the respective HD treatment for 12 consecutive months without hospitalization. Collected data, such as, physical and laboratory examinations, medications, and self-assessment questionnaires on subjective symptoms (i.e., fatigue and pruritus) were compared between the two groups.

Results: In a 12-month period, no clinical relevant differences were found in dialysis-related parameters between the two groups. However, there were differences in the defined daily dose of anti-hypertensive agents, and subjective symptoms, such as severe fatigue, and pruritus, which were all less in the E-HD group. Multivariate analysis revealed E-HD was an independent significant factor for the reduced use of anti-hypertensive agents as well as the absence of severe fatigue and pruritus at 12 months after adjusting for confounding factors.

Conclusion: The data indicates E-HD could have substantial clinical benefits beyond conventional HD therapy, and support the rationale to conduct clinical trials of H2 application to HD treatment.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28902900/


Electrolyzed water (EW) generated on the cathode side reportedly displays anti-oxidative properties, and application of EW to hemodialysis (HD) systems supposedly suppresses oxidative markers in patients on HD. However, most of the chemical properties and biological effects of such solutions remain unclear. This study aimed to examine those issues to clarify the scientific background for the clinical use of EW solution. Reverse osmosis water comprising EW from the cathode side (e-RO) was prepared and used to process a test HD solution (e-HD). Chemical and biological properties of these solutions were compared with controls. Redox properties were examined by chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H(2)O(2) system. Biological effects of e-RO on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were tested with respect to the cellular protection against methylglyoxal, and with respect to the preservation of cellular function as to radical generation. Control HD solution presented the highest CL, followed by e-HD, control RO, suggesting a lower oxidative capacity for EW-based solutions. Increased levels of dissolved hydrogen were characteristic of e-RO and e-HD. Application of e-RO tended to be associated with less injury of PMNs by methylglyoxal, and with significantly higher levels of radical generation compared with the control. Compared with control HD, e-RO-based HD solution displays less-oxidative capacity in chemical terms, and may at least partly facilitate preservation of PMN viability. These results appear to offer a scientific basis for supporting the clinical challenge of applying this technology to HD treatment.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17576297/

Background: Chronic inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients indicates a poor prognosis. However, therapeutic approaches are limited. Hydrogen gas (H(2 ameliorates oxidative and inflammatory injuries to organs in animal models. We developed an HD system using a dialysis solution with high levels of dissolved H(2) and examined the clinical effects.

Methods: Dialysis solution with H(2) (average of 48 ppb) was produced by mixing dialysate concentrates and reverse osmosis water containing dissolved H(2) generated by a water electrolysis technique. Subjects comprised 21 stable patients on standard HD who were switched to the test HD for 6 months at three sessions a week.

Results: During the study period, no adverse clinical signs or symptoms were observed. A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) before and after dialysis was observed during the study, and a significant number of patients achieved SBP <140 mmHg after HD (baseline, 21%; 6 months, 62%; P < 0.05). Changes in dialysis parameters were minimal, while significant decreases in levels of plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P < 0.01) and myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05) were identified.

Conclusions: Adding H(2) to haemodialysis solutions ameliorated inflammatory reactions and improved BP control. This system could offer a novel therapeutic option for control of uraemia.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20388631/


Hydrogen-rich water & rheumatoid arthritis

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of bone and cartilage. Although its etiology is unknown, the hydroxyl radical has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H2) was demonstrated to be a selective scavenger for the hydroxyl radical. Also, the method to prepare water containing extremely high concentration of H2 has been developed. We hypothesized that H2 in the water could complement conventional therapy by reducing the oxidative stress in RA.

Methods: Twenty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drank 530 ml of water containing 4 to 5 ppm molecular hydrogen (high H2 water) every day for 4 weeks. After a 4-week wash-out period, the patients drank the high H2 water for another 4 weeks. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) and disease activity (DAS28, using C-reactive protein [CRP] levels) was estimated at the end of each 4-week period.

Results: Drinking high H2 water seems to raise the concentration of H2 more than the H2 saturated (1.6 ppm) water in vivo. Urinary 8-OHdG was significantly reduced by 14.3% (p < 0.01) on average. DAS28 also decreased from 3.83 to 3.02 (p < 0.01) during the same period. After the wash-out period, both the urinary 8-OHdG and the mean DAS28 decreased, compared to the end of the drinking period. During the second drinking period, the mean DAS28 was reduced from 2.83 to 2.26 (p < 0.01). Urinary 8-OHdG was not further reduced but remained below the baseline value. All the 5 patients with early RA (duration < 12 months) who did not show antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPAs) achieved remission, and 4 of them became symptom-free at the end of the study.

Conclusions: The results suggest that the hydroxyl radical scavenger H2 effectively reduces oxidative stress in patients with this condition. The symptoms of RA were significantly improved with high H2 water.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23031079/


The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of H2-saline infusion for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the infusion of 1 ppm H2-dissolved saline (H2-saline) in 24 RA patients. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive 500 ml of either H2-saline or placebo-saline, which was drop infused intravenously (DIV) daily for 5 days. The disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) was measured at baseline, immediately post infusion, and after 4 weeks. Therapeutic effects of H2-saline on joint inflammation were estimated by measuring serum biomarkers for RA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). In the H2-infused group, average DAS28 decreased from 5.18 ± 1.16 to 4.02 ± 1.25 immediately post infusion and reached 3.74 ± 1.22 after 4 weeks. No significant decrease in DAS28 was observed in the placebo group throughout the study. IL-6 levels in the H2 group significantly decreased in 4 weeks by 37.3 ± 62.0% compared to baseline, whereas it increased by 33.6 ± 34.4% in the placebo group. TNFα levels did not change remarkably in the H2 or placebo groups in 4 weeks post-infusion compared to baseline. The relative ratio of 8-OHdG in the H2 group also significantly decreased by 4.7%. After 4 weeks, MMP3 was significantly reduced by 19.2% ± 24.6% in the H2 group, and increased by 16.9% ± 50.2% in the placebo group. Drop infusion of H2 safely and effectively reduced RA disease activity.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24929023/

Hydrogen-rich water & neurological disorders

Abstract: The medicinal value of hydrogen (H2) was ignored prior to research illustrating that inhalation of 2% H2 can significantly decrease the damage of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion caused by oxidative stress via selective elimination of hydroxyl freebase (OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Subsequently, there have been numerous experiments on H2. Most research and trials involving the mechanisms underlying H2 therapy show the effects of antioxygenation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. Among quantities of diseases related with H2 therapy, the brain disease is a hotspot as brain tissue and cell damage are easier to be induced by oxidative stress and other stimulations. In this review, emphasis is on stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Taking into account the blood-brain barrier, penetrability, possible side effects, and the molecular properties of H2 within a single comprehensive review should contribute to advancing both clinical and non-clinical research and therapies. A systematic introduction of H2 therapy with regards to mechanisms and cerebral diseases both in animal and human subjects can make it easier to comprehend H2 therapy and therefore provide the basis for further clinical strategy.

Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is considered a major mediator of tissue and cell injuries in various neuronal conditions, including neurological emergencies and neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular hydrogen is well characterized as a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. Recently, the neuroprotective effects of treatment with molecular hydrogen have been reported in both basic and clinical settings. Here, we review the effects of hydrogen therapy in acute neuronal conditions and neurodegenerative diseases. Hydrogen therapy administered in drinking water may be useful for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and for reducing the symptoms of acute neuronal conditions.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in its various forms has emerged as a major problem for modern society. Acute TBI can transform into a chronic condition and be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, probably through induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Here, we examined the ability of the antioxidant molecular hydrogen given in drinking water (molecular hydrogen water; mHW) to alter the acute changes induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI), a commonly used experimental model of TBI. We found that mHW reversed CCI-induced edema by about half, completely blocked pathological tau expression, accentuated an early increase seen in several cytokines but attenuated that increase by day 7, reversed changes seen in the protein levels of aquaporin-4, HIF-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9, but not for amyloid beta peptide 1-40 or 1-42. Treatment with mHW also reversed the increase seen 4 h after CCI in gene expression related to oxidation/carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine release, leukocyte or cell migration, cytokine transport, ATP and nucleotide binding. Finally, we found that mHW preserved or increased ATP levels and propose a new mechanism for mHW, that of ATP production through the Jagendorf reaction. These results show that molecular hydrogen given in drinking water reverses many of the sequelae of CCI and suggests that it could be an easily administered, highly effective treatment for TBI.


Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are identified in cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous evidence suggests Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is linked to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The accumulation of Aβ-induced ROS leads to increased mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptotic cell death. This suggests antioxidant therapies may be beneficial for preventing ROS-related diseases such as AD. Recently, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has been proven effective in treating oxidative stress-induced disorders because of its ROS-scavenging abilities. However, the precise molecular mechanisms whereby HRW prevents neuronal death are still unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the putative pathways by which HRW protects against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Our results indicated that HRW directly counteracts oxidative damage by neutralizing excessive ROS, leading to the alleviation of Aβ-induced cell death. In addition, HRW also stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent pathway, which upregulates forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a) downstream antioxidant response and diminishes Aβ-induced mitochondrial potential loss and oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that HRW may have potential therapeutic value to inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.


Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation cause many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) functions as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The routes of H2 administration in animal model and human clinical studies are roughly classified into three types, inhalation of H2 gas, drinking H2-dissolved water, and injection of H2-dissolved saline. This review discusses some of the remarkable progress that has been made in the research of H2 use for neurological disorders, such as cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and neonatal brain disorders. Although most neurological disorders are currently incurable, these studies suggest the clinical potential of H2 administration for their prevention, treatment, and mitigation. Several of the potential effectors of H2 will also be discussed, including cell signaling molecules and hormones that are responsible for preventing oxidative stress and inflammation. Nevertheless, further investigation will be required to determine the direct target molecule of H2.

Hydrogen-rich water & Parkinson's disease

Background: Oxidative stress is involved in the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recent studies have confirmed that molecular hydrogen (H₂) functions as a highly effective antioxidant in cultured cells and animal models. Drinking H₂-dissolved water (H₂-water) reduced oxidative stress and improved Parkinson’s features in model animals.

Methods: In this a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical pilot study, the authors assessed the efficacy of H₂ -water in Japanese patients with levodopa-medicated PD. Participants drank 1,000 mL/day of H₂-water or pseudo water for 48 weeks.

Results: Total Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores in the H₂-water group (n=9) improved (median, -1.0; mean ± standard deviation, -5.7 ± 8.4), whereas UPDRS scores in the placebo group (n=8) worsened (median, 4.5; mean ± standard deviation, 4.1 ± 9.2). Despite the minimal number of patients and the short duration of the trial, the difference was significant (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The results indicated that drinking H₂-water was safe and well tolerated, and a significant improvement in total UPDRS scores for patients in the H₂-water group was demonstrated.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23400965/


Melanin, a hybrid electronic/ionic conductor may have the potential to split the water molecule into molecular hydrogen and molecular oxygen. Molecular hydrogen is an antioxidant and may be instrumental in preventing the excessive oxidation leading to Parkinson’s disease. Melanin, located in the Substantia Nigra, deteriorates in Parkinson’s disease so may be related to the development and progression of the disease, since molecular hydrogen would no longer be generated as it deteriorates. Environmental toxins, thought to be related to development of Parkinson’s disease, may cause deterioration of intrinsic melanin, since it is a chelator which would collect such environmental contaminants, but its function of splitting the water molecule into molecular hydrogen and oxygen could be effected as a consequence. Restoring melanin function or providing supplemental molecular hydrogen might be potential treatments for Parkinson’s disease.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24529916/

Hydrogen-rich water & angiogenesis


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor cells are exposed to higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells. Numerous reports have demonstrated that the intracellular redox (oxidation/reduction) state is closely associated with the pattern of VEGF expression. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) produced near the cathode during the electrolysis of water scavenged intracellular H(2)O(2) and decreased the release of H(2)O(2) from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and down-regulated both VEGF transcription and protein secretion in a time-dependent manner. To investigate the signal transduction pathway involved in regulating VEGF expression, mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and JNKi (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor) were applied. The results showed that only PD98059 blocks VEGF expression, suggesting an important role for ERK1/2 in regulating VEGF expression in A549 cells. As well, ERW inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner. Co-culture experiments to analyze in vitro tubule formation assay revealed that A549 cell-derived conditioned medium significantly stimulated the formation of vascular tubules in all analyzed parameters; tubule total area, tubule junction, number of tubules, and total tubule length. ERW counteracted the effect of A549 cell-conditioned medium and decreased total tube length (p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that ERW down-regulated VEGF gene transcription and protein secretion through inactivation of ERK.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18175936/

Hydrogen-rich water & hepatitis B

Objective: To investigate effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on oxidative stress, liver function and HBV DNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

Results: When compared with controls, oxidative stress was obvious in CHB patients, and the liver function also significantly impaired. After treatment, the oxidative stress remained unchanged in routine treatment group, but markedly improved in hydrogen treatment group. The liver function was improved significantly and the HBV DNA reduced markedly after corresponding treatments. Although a significant difference was noted in the oxidative stress between two groups after treatment, the liver function and HBV DNA level were comparable after treatment and both had improved tendencies.

Conclusion: HRW significantly attenuates oxidative stress in CHB patients, but further study with long-term treatment is required to confirm the effect of HRW on liver function and HBV DNA level.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24127924/

Hydrogen-rich water & polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Abstract: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by hormonal disturbances including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia culminating into obesity, multiple ovarian cysts and anovulatory infertility in women. There has been no effective medication against PCOS and its complication. However, weight loss can reduce insulin resistance, which in turn helps to restore hormonal balance and ovulation resulting to improved fertility. Previously, we reported that alkaline reduced water (ARW) could significantly reduce obesity by alleviating adiposity, regulating the levels of adipokines/pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inducing cholesterol homeostasis. Herein, we hypothesize that ARW might ameliorate the pathophysiological (hormonal, metabolic, and immunological) imbalances incurred by PCOS, thereby improving the infertility of PCOS patients.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28673586/

Hydrogen-rich water & pesticide residues reduction

Abstract Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22420563/

Hydrogen-rich water, pH levels and effects on cancer


As stated by Otto Warburg nearly a century ago, cancer is a metabolic disease, a fermentation caused by malfunctioning mitochondria, resulting in increased anabolism and decreased catabolism. Treatment should, therefore, aim at restoring the energy yield. To decrease anabolism, glucose uptake should be reduced (ketogenic diet). To increase catabolism, the oxidative phosphorylation should be restored. Treatment with a combination of α-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate has been shown to be effective in multiple animal models. This treatment, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, has yielded extremely encouraging results in glioblastoma, brain metastasis and lung cancer. Randomized trials are necessary to confirm these preliminary data. The major limitation is the fact that the combination of α-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate can only be effective if the mitochondria are still present and/or functional. That may not be the case in the most aggressive tumors. The increased intracellular alkalosis is a strong mitogenic signal, which bypasses most inhibitory signals. Concomitant correction of this alkalosis may be a very effective treatment in case of mitochondrial failure.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28122260/


The acid-mediated tumor invasion hypothesis proposes altered glucose metabolism and increased glucose uptake, observed in the vast majority of clinical cancers by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, are critical for development of the invasive phenotype. In this model, increased acid production due to altered glucose metabolism serves as a key intermediate by producing H(+) flow along concentration gradients into adjacent normal tissue. This chronic exposure of peritumoral normal tissue to an acidic microenvironment produces toxicity by: (a) normal cell death caused by the collapse of the transmembrane H(+) gradient inducing necrosis or apoptosis and (b) extracellular matrix degradation through the release of cathepsin B and other proteolytic enzymes. Tumor cells evolve resistance to acid-induced toxicity during carcinogenesis, allowing them to survive and proliferate in low pH microenvironments. This permits them to invade the damaged adjacent normal tissue despite the acid gradients. Here, we describe theoretical and empirical evidence for acid-mediated invasion. In silico simulations using mathematical models provide testable predictions concerning the morphology and cellular and extracellular dynamics at the tumor-host interface. In vivo experiments confirm the presence of peritumoral acid gradients as well as cellular toxicity and extracellular matrix degradation in the normal tissue exposed to the acidic microenvironment. The acid-mediated tumor invasion model provides a simple mechanism linking altered glucose metabolism with the ability of tumor cells to form invasive cancers.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16707446/


Exosomes secreted by normal and cancer cells carry and deliver a variety of molecules. To date, mechanisms referring to tumor exosome trafficking, including release and cell-cell transmission, have not been described. To gain insight into this, exosomes purified from metastatic melanoma cell medium were labeled with a lipid fluorescent probe, R18, and analyzed by spectrofluorometry and confocal microscopy. A low pH condition is a hallmark of tumor malignancy, potentially influencing exosome release and uptake by cancer cells. Using different pH conditions as a modifier of exosome traffic, we showed (i) an increased exosome release and uptake at low pH when compared with a buffered condition and (ii) exosome uptake by melanoma cells occurred by fusion. Membrane biophysical analysis, such as fluidity and lipid composition, indicated a high rigidity and sphingomyelin/ganglioside GM3 (N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide) content in exosomes released at low pH. This was likely responsible for the increased fusion efficiency. Consistent with these results, pretreatment with proton pump inhibitors led to an inhibition of exosome uptake by melanoma cells. Fusion efficiency of tumor exosomes resulted in being higher in cells of metastatic origin than in those derived from primary tumors or normal cells. Furthermore, we found that caveolin-1, a protein involved in melanoma progression, is highly delivered through exosomes released in an acidic condition. The results of our study provide the evidence that exosomes may be used as a delivery system for paracrine diffusion of tumor malignancy, in turn supporting the importance of both exosomes and tumor pH as key targets for future anti-cancer strategies.

Link to PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19801663/


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